Study Guide

Elementary Education (Grades 1–6)
Sample Multiple-Choice Questions

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Field 200: Fine Arts, Physical Development, and Health (Grades 1–6)

Each multiple-choice question has four answer choices. Read each question and its answer choices carefully and choose the ONE best answer.

During the test you should try to answer all questions. Even if you are unsure of an answer, it is better to guess than not to answer a question at all. You will NOT be penalized for choosing an incorrect response.

Objective 0001
Understand historical, cultural, and societal contexts for the arts (visual arts, music, drama, dance) and the interrelationships among the arts.

1. Which of the following activities would best foster students’ ability to appreciate a piece of classical music?

  1. providing students with English translations of Italian terms noted in the score of the composition
  2. helping students recognize the expressive qualities of the composition
  3. instructing students to draw the contour of the main melody of the composition with a pencil
  4. asking students to invent rhymed lyrics that fit the meter of the composition
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: B.
Composers use musical elements to express mood in the music they create. For example, composers of classical music often evoke a sad mood through the encoded use of minor key and slow tempo. Students may not be able to readily identify such expressive sound qualities in a piece of classical music. Helping them to listen for such expressive qualities will most likely enhance their appreciation of what they are listening to.

Objective 0001
Understand historical, cultural, and societal contexts for the arts (visual arts, music, drama, dance) and the interrelationships among the arts.

2. The duties of a choreographer for a dance performance are most closely aligned to which of the following duties of a theatre director?

  1. adjusting the pace of dialogue
  2. helping actors discover their characters
  3. blocking each scene
  4. analyzing the script for meaning
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: C.
A choreographer serves a similar role to a theatre director in that both are the artistic leaders of their respective productions. Choreographers design the form and movements of dancers in a dance performance. The focus on visual composition and the arrangement of bodies on stage is closely aligned with a theatre director's task of blocking—positioning actors on stage for dramatic effect and to ensure that the audience has unobstructed sight lines of the actors.

Objective 0002
Understand concepts, techniques, and materials related to the visual arts, music, drama, and dance and how to provide students with learning opportunities that encourage them to express themselves through the arts.

3. One area of a painting is an abstract shape painted orange. Which of the following colors painted alongside the orange shape would most enhance or intensify the color of the orange shape?

  1. blue
  2. red
  3. green
  4. yellow
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: A.
Orange and blue are complementary colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel. When complementary colors are mixed, they cancel each other out and produce a neutral color. When they appear side by side, they contrast sharply with each other, which has the effect of enhancing or intensifying each color.

Objective 0002
Understand concepts, techniques, and materials related to the visual arts, music, drama, and dance and how to provide students with learning opportunities that encourage them to express themselves through the arts.

4. Which of the following steps would most likely come first in developing a Dance assessment instrument?

  1. asking the physical education teacher to describe the physical fitness of the students
  2. choosing a time during the academic year to administer the assessment
  3. creating a scoring rubric that represents performance expectations
  4. designing learning objectives for measureable learning experiences
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: D.
The first task in developing an assessment tool is to clearly articulate the learning objectives that will be assessed. Learning objectives describe student outcomes for learning experiences that are observable and measurable.

Objective 0003
Understand fundamental concepts, principles, and practices related to movement, sports, and team-building skills and the role of physical activity in promoting students’ personal, social, and cognitive development.

5. For a first-grade physical activity, the teacher scatters carpet squares around the gymnasium. Each student finds a carpet square and listens to the teacher's challenge below.

"Imagine that you are inside a giant bubble that has landed on your carpet square. How can you move inside your bubble? How many different ways can you bend and stretch without moving off your carpet square?

"Next, imagine that you and your bubble float off your carpet square and begin moving on a gentle breeze. Float around the room without bumping into anyone so your bubbles do not burst. Move forward, backward, and sideways. Float back to your carpet square on my signal."

Which of the following types of movement concepts are students primarily exploring in this activity?

  1. spatial awareness concepts such as self- and general space, direction, pathways, and levels
  2. balance and weight bearing concepts such as center of gravity, base of support, and sequential transfer of body weight
  3. relationship concepts such as over or under, in front of or behind, or next to or far from objects
  4. effort awareness concepts such as strong and light force, fast and slow time, and interrupted and sustained flow
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: A.
In this activity, students are exploring spatial awareness concepts. While on their carpet squares, students remain in personal or self-space. When the students leave their carpet squares to move around the gymnasium, they are traveling in general space. This type of activity encourages students to distinguish between self-space and general space, respect the self-space of others, and move within general space safely and with control. As students bend and stretch in self-space, they are likely to move their bodies at low, middle, or high levels and in different directions—up or down, forward or backward, and to the right or left. Moving in general space while avoiding others prompts students to travel in different directions; in straight, curved, or zigzag pathways; and, if they are required to duck or dodge, at different levels.

Objective 0003
Understand fundamental concepts, principles, and practices related to movement, sports, and team-building skills and the role of physical activity in promoting students’ personal, social, and cognitive development.

6. Research on physical activity and its effects on cognitive development suggests that there is a strong link between regular participation in purposeful vigorous aerobic activity and enhancement of which type of skills?

  1. deductive reasoning skills such as general-to-specific thinking and narrowing a theory to a hypothesis that could be tested
  2. rhythmic and musical composition skills such as distinguishing among musical elements and genres and interpreting musical notations
  3. executive functioning skills such as planning and organizing, controlling emotions and impulsivity, and remembering instructions for a task
  4. linguistic skills such as facility in learning multiple languages; transfer of language skills; and bilingualism in reading, writing, and speaking
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: C.
Research studies show a positive relationship between aerobic activity and increases in volume in the hippocampus, a brain structure that plays a key role in executive functioning and management, learning, and working memory. In 2013, the Illinois Public Health Institute (IPHI) prepared for the Illinois Enhanced Physical Education Task Force a review of the research on the relationship between physical activity, fitness, and improved academic achievement and cognitive functioning. This review confirmed the link between regular participation in moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity and the development and enhancement of executive functioning and management, which is associated with the cognitive processes necessary for goal-directed cognition and behavior. These cognitive processes include self-regulatory tasks such as focusing attention and maintaining self-control, as well as information processing and management tasks such as remembering instructions, storing and retrieving information from working memory, reasoning and problem solving, and planning and scheduling.

Objective 0004
Understand the systems of the human body; health-related and skill-related fitness components, concepts, and practices; and interrelationships between fitness and body systems.

7. In a health and wellness lesson, a fifth-grade class creates the list below of potential adverse health effects on the body's circulatory system. Which of the following lifestyle behaviors is most closely associated with these negative effects on personal health?

  1. binge drinking alcohol
  2. smoking tobacco products
  3. consuming refined sugars
  4. using anabolic steroids
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: B.
Smoking tobacco products has damaging effects on multiple body systems, including the circulatory system. The carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke attaches to hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying component in red blood cells) more easily than oxygen does, resulting in a decrease in oxygen transported to the body's tissues and organs. The oxygen content of blood to the heart is reduced, which can cause high blood pressure and increased heart rate. Chemicals in tobacco smoke also damage cells that form the lining of blood vessels. Thus, smokers are at an increased risk of developing atherosclerotic disease, in which coronary arteries become narrowed by a gradual buildup of fatty material within their walls. Smoking also raises the levels of the protein that causes blood to clot, thereby increasing platelet aggregation and the stickiness of blood. This increases the risk of stroke and heart attack due to blockages of the blood supply.

Objective 0004
Understand the systems of the human body; health-related and skill-related fitness components, concepts, and practices; and interrelationships between fitness and body systems.

8. Which of the following statements best explains why animal walks and dance poses that require students to lower their hips near or below knee level (e.g., frog stand, duck walk, grand plié) are now considered unsafe?

  1. They hyperextend the neck, placing excess weight on cervical vertebrae.
  2. They cause the back to overarch, stressing the muscles and discs in the lower back.
  3. They overstretch the hip flexor muscles, causing muscle fibers and tendons to tear.
  4. They place excessive pressure on knee ligaments and cartilage, leading to strains.
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: D.
During physical activities, the use of appropriate fitness principles and practices helps safeguard students against injuries. Some movement activities and fitness exercises that may have been traditionally used in elementary education are no longer considered safe. Animal walks and poses such as the duck walk and the frog stance require students to perform deep knee bends, which are contraindicated because of their potential to strain the ligaments and cartilage of the knees. The grand plié ballet position is performed by turning the feet outward and fully bending both knees until the thighs are nearly horizontal. For a novice dancer, this amounts to performing a deep squat with feet turned out, heels raised, and pelvis tucked, which places excessive stress on the knees.

Objective 0005
Understand principles and practices related to personal, family, and community health and safety and ways to provide students with knowledge and skills that will help them make sound health-related decisions.

9. Which of the following foods are good sources of the carbohydrates used to make the glucose and glycogen that students need to fuel daily physical activities?

  1. nuts, cheese, and eggs
  2. poultry, pork, and lean beef
  3. whole grains, fruits, and vegetables
  4. seeds, oils, and canned and wild-caught fish
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: C.
Nutrient choices influence overall health, body composition, and availability of energy. Carbohydrates provide energy to the cells of the body. Simple carbohydrates include naturally occurring sugars such as fruits, which are easily digested and provide quick energy. Complex carbohydrates such as whole grains and vegetables take longer to digest, creating a slow, steady increase in blood glucose and longer-lasting energy. Once consumed, carbohydrates break down into sugars and travel to the liver, where they are converted into glucose. Via the bloodstream, glucose travels to the body's tissues and organs, including the muscles and the brain, where it is used as energy. Unused glucose is stored in the liver and skeletal muscles in the form of glycogen, which can be used later for energy as needed.

Objective 0005
Understand principles and practices related to personal, family, and community health and safety and ways to provide students with knowledge and skills that will help them make sound health-related decisions.

10. Small groups of fifth-grade students will apply the steps in the decision-making model below to hypothetical health-related situations. Each group chooses a health-related issue and documents the process used to make a decision that will help resolve the issue.

Decision-Making Steps

  1. Define the problem/decision to be made.
  2. Identify important criteria for the decision and the result.
  3. Consider all possible options.
  4. Weigh the consequences of solutions against the likelihood of satisfying the criteria.
  5. Choose the best option.
  6. Evaluate and monitor the solution.

Which of the following tasks should be carried out by the students during Step 4?

  1. developing a plan for carrying out the decision and monitoring its effectiveness
  2. reviewing group member roles and responsibilities in a collaborative decision-making process
  3. determining exactly what resources will be needed to implement a decision or course of action
  4. analyzing factors that affect each option and identifying probable outcomes of decisions
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: D.
In this decision-making process, Step 4 involves tasks such as checking alternative options and decision choices against sound, relevant health knowledge and the goals and desired results of the decision-making task. During this step, it is appropriate for students to examine factors that are likely to affect decisions or courses of action, consider the pros and cons of different options, and compare the advantages and disadvantages of various options. In addition, students should attempt to predict potential outcomes and evaluate potential consequences of alternative decisions. Using a systematic decision-making process helps students determine an appropriate course of action and provides them with valuable practice in using decision-making skills to enhance personal health and safety.