Study Guide

Field 211: Health Education
Sample Multiple-Choice Questions

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Each multiple-choice question has four answer choices. Read each question and its answer choices carefully and choose the ONE best answer.

During the test you should try to answer all questions. Even if you are unsure of an answer, it is better to guess than not to answer a question at all. You will NOT be penalized for choosing an incorrect response.

Objective 0001
Understand theories, principles, models, and processes of health promotion, disease prevention, and health education.

1. Approaches to health education that focus on reducing health-risk behaviors are primarily based on:

  1. child and adolescent injury statistics gathered from hospitals.
  2. data showing a correlation between behavior and premature morbidity.
  3. a complementary application of social psychology and public health principles.
  4. diffusion of innovative theories of behavioral change.
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: B.
Scientific evidence shows strong correlations between negative health-risk behaviors and premature morbidity. Since the 1980s, surveillance surveys have been used to collect, monitor, and evaluate data on the prevalence of key behavioral risks associated with premature morbidity and mortality. In particular, the CDC's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors high school students for six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among youth and adults, including behaviors that contribute to injury and violence, sexual behaviors related to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, alcohol and other drug use, tobacco use, unhealthy dietary behaviors, and inadequate physical activity. Health promotion and health education programs focus on increasing student awareness of these personal health-risk behaviors and teaching students the skills needed to reduce and prevent such behaviors.

Objective 0002
Understand prevention, types, causes, effects, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious, noninfectious, and chronic diseases.

2. A significant goal of health promotion and disease prevention is to promote greater health equity by identifying and addressing key social determinants of health. Which of the following sets of influences are categorized as social determinants that can result in disparities and impact the health and safety of U.S. populations?

  1. alcohol, tobacco, or other drug use; diet; hygiene; sexual activity
  2. early childhood education, discrimination, income level, food security
  3. community service programs, access to parks and playgrounds, exposure to social media
  4. family structure, age, gender, genetic or inherited health conditions
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: B.
Determinants of health are personal, social, economic, and environmental factors that influence health status. The determinants are organized in broad categories such as policymaking, social factors, health services, individual behavior, and biology and genetics. Social determinants that tend to impact the health and safety of individuals include the availability of resources to meet daily needs, such as living wages and nutritious foods; social norms and attitudes, such as discrimination; socioeconomic conditions, including family income and level of food security; and quality schools, including early childhood education programs.

Objective 0003
Understand the health consequences of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and strategies for reducing risks related to alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use.

3. The street drugs known as "Molly" and "Ecstasy," made from 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), are known to cause which of the following health effects?

  1. loss of motor coordination, drowsiness, and depressed central nervous system functioning
  2. dizziness, decreased body temperature, nausea, and extreme thirst
  3. slowed respiratory system functioning, labored and shallow breathing, and vomiting
  4. increased heart rate and blood pressure, muscle cramping, teeth clenching, and distorted time perception
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: D.
MDMA, a "club drug" commonly known as Ecstasy or Molly, is a synthetic pill that produces stimulant effects and some psychedelic effects. Common side effects of MDMA include involuntary teeth grinding and jaw clenching, muscle tension, distorted sensory perception, chills or sweating, anxiety, blurred vision, and loss of appetite; less common but more harmful side effects include hyperthermia, uncontrollable seizures, high blood pressure, and depression caused by a sudden depletion in serotonin, a neurotransmitter associated with mood elevation.

Objective 0004
Understand principles and strategies for promoting and maintaining mental and emotional health, including managing stress.

4. Use the information below to answer the question that follows.

During a health education lesson, the teacher and students review and categorize protective factors associated with positive mental and emotional health. One set of protective factors is shown below.

According to health promotion principles, these protective factors would be categorized accurately as:

  1. external assets provided by family, school, and community.
  2. internal assets fostered by positive values and commitment to learning.
  3. interpersonal competencies for successful relationship management.
  4. self-management competencies for effectively resisting and handling stress.
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: A.
One overarching concept in the field of health education is that the presence or absence of protective and risk factors can enhance or hinder the mental and emotional health of students. Protective factors can be biological, psychological, environmental, social, cultural, or familial in nature. Protective factors within the student, such as attributes, values, and competencies, are classified as internal. Protective factors in the student's environment, such as family, peers, school, neighborhood, and community, are classified as external. Identifying protective factors, both internal and external, and helping students develop those assets, is an important strategy in promoting students' resiliency, stress management skills, and mental and emotion well-being.

Objective 0005
Understand interpersonal and family relationships, social support systems, and how to foster positive interpersonal communication to promote family and social health.

5. In an adolescent social group, a group leader typically emerges primarily as a result of:

  1. legitimate election or appointment by the group.
  2. intimidation and manipulation on the part of the leader.
  3. personal characteristics that are admired by group members.
  4. clear and demonstrated expertise concerning task accomplishment.
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: C.
During adolescence, as students mature developmentally, they tend to seek membership in peer groups or cliques that can meet their emerging social and cognitive needs, reinforce their values and beliefs, and instill a sense of belonging and community. Adolescents who demonstrate highly developed social skills and personal behaviors, attributes, and attitudes that are admired by peers are good candidates for leadership. They provide social support to group members and reinforce peer group norms and values. Status is conferred on group leaders in a variety of ways and according to specific status characteristics, such as task-specific behavior and personal experience, or general status characteristics, such as age, race, or ethnicity. Leaders may even offer new group members the opportunity for increased social status through affiliation with the leader and the peer group.

Objective 0006
Understand principles of bullying prevention, conflict resolution, and violence prevention; and strategies for reducing health risks related to bullying, conflict, and violence.

6. Use the information below to answer the question that follows.

Two students, Jamie and Claudia, are working together on a school project. Jamie is working hard and doing her best to follow the teacher's instructions, while Claudia remains unfocused and unwilling to follow instructions. As the two students work together, Jamie makes the following two remarks to Claudia.

Remark 1: You're doing a bad job, Claudia. I'm really unhappy that we're going to do badly on this project because of you. Why can't you just settle down and help me?

Remark 2: I feel frustrated because I'm doing almost all the work. I want to get a good grade, but I'm afraid that won't happen if you don't start taking this project more seriously.

Which of the following statements accurately identifies which remark by Jamie is more effective and why that remark is more effective?

  1. Remark 1 is more effective because it reflects a fair and accurate evaluation of the situation and identifies a simple and reasonable solution.
  2. Remark 2 is more effective because it clearly describes the behavior that is bothering Jamie and explains why.
  3. Remark 1 is more effective because it is direct, to the point, and certain to be very easily understood by Claudia.
  4. Remark 2 is more effective because it assigns blame to Claudia, who is at fault, while clarifying what is at risk for both students.
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: B.
In this situation, Remark 2 is more effective because it employs an "I-message" technique to convey information in a way that is less likely than Remark 1 to provoke a defensive or hostile reaction from Claudia. With Remark 1, Jamie states the problem in terms of a "you-message" that assigns blame. With Remark 2, however, Jamie describes exactly what is bothering her, how it makes her feel, and the anxiety it creates. This strategy allows Jamie to express her feelings and to inform Claudia about what the problem is without escalating the conflict.

Objective 0007
Understand human body systems and physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and environmental health factors that affect health, growth, and human development.

7. The high caloric needs and sleep requirements of adolescents are directly related to which of the following factors?

  1. increased levels of physical activity beyond those of childhood
  2. increases in stress due to the competing demands of school, family, and peer groups
  3. high rates of metabolic activity associated with growth and development
  4. elevated levels of testosterone or estrogen in the body
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: C.
The rapid growth that occurs in adolescence is second only to that in the first year of life. As adolescents experience growth spurts, they use more energy, thus increasing their metabolism and requiring them to consume more calories. The body's need for nutrients is greater during adolescence than any other time in the life cycle, with energy needs for both males and females increasing sharply until the peak velocity of growth is reached. Approximately 25 percent of growth in height occurs during puberty, when the body needs extra calories to build muscle, bone, fat, and other tissues. Regular restorative sleep serves a vital role in supporting this growth, as well as in maintaining normal brain function and helping to regulate other body systems. Most experts recommend that to function optimally, adolescents should get 8 to 10 hours of sleep nightly.

Objective 0007
Understand human body systems and physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and environmental health factors that affect health, growth, and human development.

8. Use the information below to answer the question that follows.

During a health education lesson, the teacher lists the following body system functions on the board.

This list would be most appropriately used to reinforce a discussion of which body system?

  1. circulatory
  2. digestive
  3. skeletal
  4. muscular
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: C.
The skeletal system produces blood cells, stores important minerals, and releases hormones necessary for growth and development. Blood cells develop from stem cells in the red marrow found in certain bones. Bone tissues store minerals, including calcium and phosphorus, which are essential for some cellular activities. The bone tissues release minerals into the blood when necessary to restore the balance of minerals in the body. The skeletal system also helps modulate endocrine functions by releasing a hormone called osteocalcin, which aids in the regulation of glucose and fat deposition and serves as an important chemical energy reservoir.

Objective 0008
Understand nutritional principles and the role of nutrition in promoting and maintaining health.

9. A student who frequently appears fatigued and often gets colds may be deficient in vitamins A and D because these vitamins are essential for:

  1. the metabolism of carbohydrates into energy.
  2. supporting the functions of the immune system.
  3. the full digestion and absorption of nutrients.
  4. eliminating toxins from organs and body cells.
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: B.
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for maintaining healthy immune function; vitamin D, also fat soluble, plays a supporting role in regulating the immune system. A number of immune system functions rely on sufficient intake of vitamin A; a deficiency can lead to an impaired response to infection. The genes involved in immune responses are regulated by vitamin A, making it an essential part of combatting serious conditions such as cancer and autoimmune diseases, as well as common illnesses such as a cold or flu. Vitamin D's roles in the body include modulation of cell growth and neuromuscular and immune function, and reduction of inflammation.

Objective 0009
Understand the role of health-related physical fitness in promoting and maintaining health.

10. Which of the following statements best describes a characteristic of a person who is physically fit as compared to one who is not physically fit?

  1. The heart rate returns to the resting rate more quickly after physical exertion.
  2. There is a greater difference between blood pressure readings when exercising and when at rest.
  3. The need for warming up major muscle groups before physical activity is reduced.
  4. Breathing reaches its maximum rate more quickly after beginning a physically strenuous activity.
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: A.
Following strenuous physical exertion, an individual's heart needs time to return to its normal, resting heart rate. This duration is called heart rate recovery time. Individuals who are physically active on a regular basis tend to have faster heart rate recovery times than individuals who are not physically active. Recovery heart rate decreases as an individual becomes more fit. Healthy individuals typically see their heart rate decline by 15 to 20 beats per minute in the first minute after stopping exercise. Recovery heart rate is generally measured two minutes after stopping exercise.

Objective 0010
Understand sexual and reproductive health as well as concepts and principles for protecting sexual and reproductive health.

11. Despite the availability of information about the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and ways to protect against STIs, one in four U.S. teenagers contracts an STI every year. Which of the following statements accurately identifies a significant factor that contributes to this rate of STI infection for this age group?

  1. Teenagers lack knowledge of how to obtain useful forms of protection or access to forms of protection.
  2. Teenagers' growing bodies are biologically more susceptible to viruses and bacteria than other age groups.
  3. Teenagers have not yet fully developed the cognitive abilities to think in terms of abstract concepts and hypothetical situations.
  4. Teenagers are inclined to take risks because they tend to believe that associated negative consequences do not apply to them.
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: D.
According to the American Sexual Health Association (ASHA), each year, one in four U.S. teenagers contracts a sexually transmitted infection (STI). About half of all new STIs occur among individuals aged 15 to 24. Some teenagers may take sexual risks because their neural wiring, and hence their ability to manage impulses, is not fully developed. They may not comprehend the actual health risks associated with STIs, or may choose to ignore them. Experts report that few young people seek testing for STIs, and, because several STIs have no overt symptoms, some young people do not know they are infected. These conditions are exacerbated by the fact that teenagers tend to downplay the risks of unprotected sex.

Objective 0011
Understand principles, methods, and techniques for enhancing safety, preventing unintentional injuries, and providing care in medical emergency situations.

12. Seminars on bicycle riding strategies and traffic rules can be helpful in reducing the chances of accidents and injury primarily by:

  1. increasing awareness of dangerous situations and how to avoid or respond to them.
  2. promoting familiarity with cycling equipment and how to maintain it.
  3. emphasizing to cyclists that motor vehicles always have the right of way.
  4. impressing upon cyclists the risks of physical harm involved in cycling on roads.
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: A.
Children as young as five or six can be taught basic cycling skills and rules of the road, as well as how to recognize and avoid dangers and hazards while cycling. Developmentally appropriate seminars and other safe cycling training efforts teach skills such as remaining alert for approaching traffic and driveways, recognizing what can cause a fall and how to control a fall, recognizing roadway hazards and avoiding them, riding with care on wet or rough roads, and avoiding the risks of night riding or riding in low visibility. For example, the Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, funded by the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration, offers educator resources on bicycle safety, including videos for three age groups: 5–9, 10–14, and 15–18.

Objective 0011
Understand principles, methods, and techniques for enhancing safety, preventing unintentional injuries, and providing care in medical emergency situations.

13. Which of the following aspects of media has significantly increased the degree of access to specific, detailed facts about personal and public health issues?

  1. the wide availability of cable and streaming television services, which offer health programming to large audiences
  2. the inclusion of articles on health topics in regional and national print and digital news publications
  3. the development of government and not-for-profit Web sites posting reliable science-based health information
  4. the increase in call-in radio shows and live-chat social media sites where users discuss health topics
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: C.
The Internet allows rapid access to countless sources of health-related information, including Web sites for health-care consumers, health educators, community and public health advocates, health-care practitioners, and health science researchers. Government organizations such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Food and Drug Administration maintain Web sites with current science-based health information. The Department of Health and Human Services maintains the consumer-oriented Healthfinder site. The National Institutes of Health Web site offers links to many institutes under its umbrella, such as the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Many privately administered, not-for-profit organizations such as the American Cancer Society, the American Heart Association, and the Mayo Clinic also have a history of reliability in providing scientifically accurate health information and research.

Objective 0012
Understand how to use risk-assessment, goal-setting, decision-making, and problem-solving skills to enhance personal, family, and community health.

14. After providing a high school class with general information on steps in the problem-solving process, a health teacher has students identify a health-related problem they would like to address and then create a set of questions they would consider in implementing each step of the process. One student identifies "eating too much junk food" as a problem the student would like to address. Which of the following questions would be most appropriate for the student to include in the "problem analysis" step of the problem-solving process?

  1. What personal and environmental factors are contributing to the eating pattern I would like to change?
  2. What kinds of diseases and other health issues can develop as a result of my current eating habits?
  3. What vitamins, minerals, protein, and other nutrients do I need to consume each day to stay healthy?
  4. What strategies would best help me increase my motivation to eat healthy foods and avoid unhealthy foods?
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: A.
Once a health-related problem such as eating too much junk food has been identified, the problem is analyzed. Students consider the nature and parameters of the problem, conditions affecting the problem, and any barriers or constraints that may be preventing students from addressing the problem and achieving health-related goals. This step in the problem-solving process is essential for assessing the current situation and analyzing what needs to change. Applying problem-solving and analysis skills to hypothetical health issues prepares students for using the skills in real-life situations, including those involving potential health risks.

Objective 0014
Understand the role of the health education teacher as a resource person and methods for obtaining, analyzing, and disseminating health-related information.

15. A high school student is searching the Internet for information about diet aids. The student finds a site that describes a particular brand of appetite suppressant as the "best balance of a safe, effective, and low-cost method of weight management." In evaluating this claim, which of the following factors would be most important for the student to consider?

  1. the professional credentials of those responsible for the claim
  2. how current the information is regarding the method
  3. the actual cost of the diet aid
  4. the purpose and credibility of the Web site
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: D.
The author, owner, or organization that manages a Web site and its funding typically defines the site’s purpose and bears responsibility for its content. The type of company represented by a Web site and its source of funding can affect how and what content is presented. Although many commercial Web sites offer reliable health-related information and products, a manufacturer’s or marketer's desire to promote a product can influence the trustworthiness of the information presented. To be credible, claims about the benefits of an appetite suppressant should be supported by medical and scientific evidence based on research results. Students should be skeptical of unsupported vague claims made on ".com" Web sites administered by commercial entities.

Objective 0015
Understand health-related initiatives, agencies, issues, and trends and how to advocate effectively for personal, family, community, and environmental health.

16. Pollution is most likely to be suspected as an epidemiological factor in the development of cancer when:

  1. disease rates of infectious and degenerative diseases are also particularly high in a region.
  2. the incidence of cases is greater in adults than in children.
  3. wildlife species with significant numbers of genetic mutations have been found in the region.
  4. a higher-than-normal rate of cases is clustered in a geographic area.
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: D.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Cancer Institute describe a cancer cluster as a greater-than-expected number of cancer cases that occurs within a group of people in a defined geographic area over a period of time. Environmental pollution or contamination is often suspected as a causal factor when these higher-than-normal rates of cancer occur in a certain area or community. An investigation is then necessary to determine whether the cancer is caused by some type of carcinogen that is being released into the environment. According to the American Cancer Society, more than 1,000 suspected cancer clusters are reported to state health departments each year.

Objective 0016
Understand principles and procedures for planning, implementing, and evaluating a school health education program.

17. In order to conduct an effective needs assessment for a health education program, a school health advisory committee should begin by:

  1. identifying various sources from which information can be obtained.
  2. asking students what their health concerns and interests are.
  3. prioritizing various health issues of concern in the community.
  4. examining health issues that are affecting the local population.
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: A.
The primary purpose of a needs assessment is to identify strengths and weaknesses of a program and prioritize areas of concern. Once an advisory committee of appropriate experts and stakeholders is established, relevant sources of data should be identified. Ideally, information and different types of data should be gathered from multiple sources, including students, educators, parents/guardians, school staff, and community and state agencies, as well as statistical sources, such as the CDC's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and health reports on the prevalence of injuries, illness, and disease.

Objective 0017
Understand instructional and assessment strategies that adhere to best practices as well as state, national, and professional standards, and that facilitate student skill development and application of functional health knowledge.

18. In a unit on physical fitness, a health education teacher works with the technology teacher to have students complete an online assessment of physical activity and dietary behaviors. The program calculates a student's BMI and, based on self-reporting of levels and types of physical activity and food intake, makes general recommendations about adjustments the student should make in exercise and diet. Which of the following outcomes accurately characterizes the primary value of such an assessment?

  1. demonstrating that physical activity and diet are issues of concern to the nation as a whole
  2. eliminating the need for a teacher to collect personal information from students
  3. providing immediate feedback to students about where they need to focus efforts to improve
  4. stimulating conversation among students about physical activity and diet and their relationship to health
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: C.
The use of interactive online tools to self-report physical activity and food intake information allows students to create customized profiles, receive instant analyses of information provided, and review fitness results and recommendations in private. The USDA's Web site offers several interactive tools, including a BMI calculator and a SuperTracker system, customizable by age, gender, and general activity, that helps students plan, analyze, and track diet and physical activity. The SuperTracker provides instant feedback and virtual coaching and guides students in determining what and how much to eat and how to set personal nutrition goals. Another popular health-related fitness assessment program asks students to monitor and record daily activity patterns for three days. The program encourages daily activity, provides personalized student reports that prompt students to establish activity goals, and includes individualized recommendations aligned with national fitness standards.

Objective 0018
Understand the process of reading, and apply knowledge of strategies for promoting students' literacy development in the health education classroom.

19. Use the information below to answer the question that follows.

A health education teacher regularly has students engage in the following activities during a new unit of study.

The teacher's actions demonstrate awareness of the importance of promoting students' content-area reading and learning by:

  1. helping them become proficient in decoding, pronouncing, and spelling key content-area vocabulary.
  2. providing them with strategies for determining the meaning of new vocabulary.
  3. expanding their oral and written vocabularies to include a broad range of general-academic words.
  4. deepening their understanding of content-specific academic vocabulary.
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: D.
Vocabulary knowledge and concept development are closely interrelated; discipline-specific vocabulary development involves concept learning and concept learning supports academic vocabulary development. Vocabulary development is an incremental process; more exposures to and opportunities to use new vocabulary in context result in greater depth of understanding. The instructional activities used by the teacher provide students with multiple opportunities to use the vocabulary from a new unit of study in context, thus promoting the students' vocabulary development and strengthening their understanding of related concepts.

Objective 0018
Understand the process of reading, and apply knowledge of strategies for promoting students' literacy development in the health education classroom.

20. Before students read a new chapter in a textbook, a health education teacher regularly encourages the students to read the chapter's introduction and summary before reading the entire chapter. This practice promotes students' reading comprehension of content-area texts primarily by helping them:

  1. compare new concepts to previous learning.
  2. analyze the text from multiple viewpoints.
  3. establish learning goals for their reading.
  4. determine the meaning of new vocabulary.
Answer and Rationale
Correct Response: C.
A chapter's introduction and summary provide a clear indication of the chapter's main ideas in a concise format. When previewed before reading, these textual features provide students with guidance regarding what information in the chapter the author considers most important, which can help the students set a purpose, or personal learning goals, for their reading.