Study Guide

Field 232: Speech-Language Pathologist: Nonteaching 
Sample Multiple-Choice Questions

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Each multiple-choice question has four answer choices. Read each question and its answer choices carefully and choose the ONE best answer.

During the test you should try to answer all questions. Even if you are unsure of an answer, it is better to guess than not to answer a question at all. You will NOT be penalized for choosing an incorrect response.

Objective 0001 
Understand characteristics and features of typical and atypical speech and language development.

1. Which of the following pairs of skill domains contributes most to advanced development of reading comprehension?

  1. self-monitoring and metacognitive processing
  2. phonological awareness and phonomorphologic knowledge
  3. working memory recall and mental flexibility
  4. phonics and orthographic pattern recognition
Answer and Rationale. Enter to expand or collapse. Answer expanded
Correct Response: A.
Metacognitive skills are closely associated with an individual's ability to establish a purpose for reading, identify themes or the writer's purpose, activate background knowledge, evaluate text clarity, assess comprehension, and actively employ reading comprehension strategies. Self-monitoring is a metacognitive skill that is connected to an individual's ability to assess for and effectively use strategies, such as visualization and re-reading, to facilitate reading comprehension.

Objective 0001 
Understand characteristics and features of typical and atypical speech and language development.

2. A third-grade student who is acquiring inflected morphological forms is most likely to produce which of the following typical language processes in English?

  1. "Yesterday, she goes home late."
  2. "That bit hard him dog."
  3. "I went to movies with my brother."
  4. "He sleep until nine every day."
Answer and Rationale. Enter to expand or collapse. Answer expanded
Correct Response: D.
As individuals acquire inflected morphological forms, they are likely to produce typical processes or errors. Inflectional morphemes are word suffixes that assign grammatical meaning to a word, such as tense, number, possession, or comparison. In the sentence, "He sleep until nine every day," third person singular s is omitted from sleeps, thus representing an inflected morphological process.

Objective 0002 
Understand the principles of speech and language science.

3. A speech language pathologist is developing a lesson for a small group of eleventh-grade students who have difficulty modulating vocal intensity or loudness. As part of the lesson, students will be examining sound pressure waves and comparing these across varying social situations. Which of the following components of a sound pressure wave is perceived as vocal intensity?

  1. formant bands
  2. amplitude
  3. frequency
  4. wavelength
Answer and Rationale. Enter to expand or collapse. Answer expanded
Correct Response: B.
The amplitude of a sound pressure wave is a measure of the displacement of the wave from its resting position, and is related to pressure changes in the vocal mechanism. Amplitude is perceptually perceived as vocal intensity or loudness and is measured in decibels (D B).

Objective 0002 
Understand the principles of speech and language science.

4. A preschool student uses language to greet and inquire about the likes and dislikes of others, ask questions, and engage in cooperative play with peers. Which of the following language descriptions best illustrates this student's interactions?

  1. demonstrating social language rules
  2. using appropriate phonological patterns
  3. expressing context-specific vocabulary
  4. producing morphemes correctly
Answer and Rationale. Enter to expand or collapse. Answer expanded
Correct Response: A.
Social communication encompasses three broad skills, which include using language for a variety of purposes, using and interpreting language appropriately for the given audience or situation, and following the rules for discourse and storytelling. A student who greets others, asks about preferences, and engages in cooperative play with peers is demonstrating acquisition of social communication skills and the ability to follow social language rules.

Objective 0003 
Understand the role of cognitive, social, and cultural aspects of language on the development of language and communication skills.

5. Ninth-grade students working in groups of four collectively decide who will be assigned each part of a project. The classroom teacher observes the students using appropriate social language within the context of the group assignment. In this example, the students are demonstrating the complex integration of which of the following linguistic and cognitive skills?

  1. inhibition and impulse control
  2. working memory and problem solving
  3. organization and auditory processing
  4. pragmatic language and executive function
Answer and Rationale. Enter to expand or collapse. Answer expanded
Correct Response: D.
Pragmatic language is a complex and nuanced social communication skill that relies on the integration of neurocognitive and linguistic functions. In the example, the students use their executive function and pragmatic language skills to plan and organize, make decisions using a coordinated effort, and negotiate using language that is appropriate to the listeners and context.

Objective 0004 
Understand prevention and intervention techniques for students who are underperforming or at risk of developing communication disorders.

6. A preschool student has an older sibling who was recently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (A S D). Although the preschool student appears to be developing typically, the parents/guardians remain concerned and have requested to meet with the speech language pathologist. Which of the following strategies will best meet the needs of this student while addressing parent/guardian concerns?

  1. recommending a speech and language evaluation to assess social cognition
  2. providing information regarding typical language development
  3. screening the student using a standardized language instrument
  4. providing pragmatic language classroom intervention
Answer and Rationale. Enter to expand or collapse. Answer expanded
Correct Response: B.
Providing information regarding typical language development would be the most effective communication strategy to directly address the parents'/guardians' concerns, as well as the student's needs. This communication strategy is most likely to develop a shared knowledge and understanding between the speech language pathologist and the parents/guardians about the student's language acquisition and strengths.

Objective 0004 
Understand prevention and intervention techniques for students who are underperforming or at risk of developing communication disorders.

7. A kindergarten teacher is concerned about a student's speech sound production. During a classroom observation, the speech language pathologist (S L P) noted that the student did not produce /r/, /l/, /theta/, /eth/, /ja/, and consonant clusters. Which of the following actions would best address the concerns of the classroom teacher?

  1. tracking and monitoring speech sound acquisition
  2. developing a classroom lesson plan targeting speech sounds
  3. providing information regarding typical speech development
  4. selecting home activities highlighting speech sounds
Answer and Rationale. Enter to expand or collapse. Answer expanded
Correct Response: C.
By sharing information about developmental speech norms, the classroom teacher is likely to come to the conclusion that the student's speech production is typical. In addition, this strategy will directly address the teacher's concerns while providing a framework for a collaborative discussion with the speech language pathologist.

Objective 0005 
Understand characteristics and etiologies of speech disorders (e.g., disorders of articulation, phonology, voice, resonance, and fluency) and their effects on students' speech and language development.

8. A preschool student with ataxic dysarthria is most likely to present with which of the following neuromuscular symptoms?

  1. bilateral weakness
  2. incoordination
  3. spasticity
  4. limited range of movement
Answer and Rationale. Enter to expand or collapse. Answer expanded
Correct Response: B.
An individual with ataxic dysarthria is most likely to present with the neuromuscular symptom of incoordination, which impacts speech sound production, phonation, and resonance. Production characteristics most frequently associated with ataxic dysarthria include imprecise consonant production, vowel distortions, slow speech rate, equal and excess stress, and monoloudness.

Objective 0006 
Understand characteristics of disorders of receptive and expressive language and their effects on students' speaking, listening, reading, writing, and gestural modalities of communication.

9. Which of the following diagnostic criteria most clearly distinguishes autism spectrum disorder (A S D) from social communication disorder?

  1. restricted and repetitive behavior patterns
  2. delayed language acquisition
  3. limited comprehension of abstract language
  4. difficulties adhering to conversational rules
Answer and Rationale. Enter to expand or collapse. Answer expanded
Correct Response: A.
According to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth-Edition (D S M 5), restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior distinguish autism spectrum disorder (A S D) from social communication disorder. Individuals with social communication disorder and A S D both present with social communication difficulties, impacting one's ability to interpret and use language for social purposes.

Objective 0007 
Understand characteristics of hearing impairments and their effects on speech and language development.

10. Compared with children who are typically developing, children with unilateral hearing loss are more likely to exhibit:

  1. delays in concept and vocabulary development.
  2. initial consonant deletion and vowel substitution within conversational speech.
  3. difficulty localizing sounds and discriminating speech with background noise.
  4. omission of morphological forms and simplified syntactic structures.
Answer and Rationale. Enter to expand or collapse. Answer expanded
Correct Response: C.
Children with unilateral hearing loss are likely to experience difficulty localizing sounds, understanding speech with background noise, and perceiving noise beyond their immediate environment. Although children with unilateral hearing loss frequently experience delays, they are likely to acquire speech and language milestones when given appropriately intense intervention.

Objective 0008 
Understand characteristics of neurogenic/neurological disorders and swallowing and feeding disorders and their effects on speech and language development.

11. As part of the Individualized Education Program (I E P) process, a kindergarten student with myotonic dystrophy was recently reevaluated. The speech and language evaluation results indicate that this student presents with bilateral facial and palatal weakness, velopharyngeal incompetence, and an open-mouthed posture due to facial and jaw weakness. Based on this oral structural presentation, which clinical synopsis would best describe this student's probable speech production?

  1. equal stress and distortion of vowels and affricates
  2. hyponasality and distortion of vowels and stop consonants
  3. monotone pitch and substitutions of liquids and fricatives
  4. hypernasality and substitution of stop consonants and fricatives
Answer and Rationale. Enter to expand or collapse. Answer expanded
Correct Response: D.
Bilateral craniofacial weakness impacts an individual's resonance and ability to produce high-pressure consonants. Palatal weakness frequently results in hypernasality due to velopharyngeal insufficiency, and contributes to decreased airflow control when producing high-pressure consonants, such as fricatives and stop consonants. High-pressure consonant production would be further compounded by facial and jaw weakness, thus stop consonants and fricatives are likely to be substituted by other speech sounds for ease of oral-motor production.

Objective 0009 
Understand characteristics, uses, and limitations of formal and informal assessments.

12. A fourth-grade student has been referred for a speech and language evaluation due to significant reading comprehension deficits. Which of the following assessment areas would yield the most educationally relevant information regarding the student?

  1. phonological processing, print awareness, and reading automaticity
  2. decoding, knowledge of derivational morphology, and speech sound assessment
  3. knowledge of orthographic patterns, word recognition, and reading fluency
  4. spoken language assessment, curriculum-based assessment, and vocabulary knowledge
Answer and Rationale. Enter to expand or collapse. Answer expanded
Correct Response: D.
Reading comprehension is a complex process that requires the integration of spoken language; background knowledge; reasoning and metacognitive abilities; and knowledge of syntactic forms, key vocabulary, and text structure and genres. Evaluating spoken language comprehension and use, including vocabulary knowledge, would be an integral first step in assessing prerequisite reading comprehension skills. In addition, a curriculum-based assessment would yield information regarding the student's reading comprehension progress toward classroom learning objectives or academic standards, and provide insight into instructional methods that are most effective.

Objective 0010 
Understand how to apply accepted procedures for assessing students' speech and language.

13. A speech language pathologist plans to assess the motor-speech programming abilities of a kindergarten student with suspected childhood apraxia of speech. Which of the following assessment tasks would most directly evaluate this student's motor-speech sequencing abilities?

  1. measuring vowel prolongation
  2. probing stimulability of speech sounds
  3. obtaining sequential and alternating motion rates
  4. administering a standardized oromotor production assessment
Answer and Rationale. Enter to expand or collapse. Answer expanded
Correct Response: C.
An assessment of perceptual speech characteristics, which allows the speech language pathologist to describe and interpret speech production, is a component of the motor-speech examination. Eliciting sequential and alternating motion rates is an assessment method for evaluating an individual's motor-speech production and coordination.

Objective 0011 
Understand strategies for interpreting and communicating assessment results.

14. Which of the following evaluation approaches would best differentiate a language disorder from a language difference when assessing a student from a diverse linguistic background?

  1. administering a standardized test normed in both the first and second language
  2. analyzing a narrative sample for typical processes of second-language learning
  3. measuring syntactic complexity in generative written language samples using T-units
  4. considering comprehension of oral directions and vocabulary knowledge within the classroom
Answer and Rationale. Enter to expand or collapse. Answer expanded
Correct Response: B.
Analyzing a narrative language sample yields information about a student's language acquisition, influence of the first language on the second language, cultural differences, and language experiences while minimizing testing bias, which is frequently introduced when using score-based assessments. Narrative samples can be used to analyze a student's syntactic complexity, lexical diversity, language fluency, and language organization and coherence.

Objective 0012 
Understand effective, evidence-based interventions and instructional practices for students with speech disorders.

15. A speech language pathologist considers therapy targets for a preschool student, who has a significantly restricted phonetic inventory, using the complexity approach. The student has acquired the stop and nasal phonemes /p/, /b/, /m/, and /n/. Which of the following intervention rationales is most consistent with the complexity approach?

  1. selecting later acquired sounds, such as /s/ and /z/, to influence greater generalization
  2. targeting acquisition of /w/ and /h/ phonemes since they are early-developing sounds
  3. targeting phonemes, such as /r/ and /l/, based on the frequency of occurrence in English
  4. selecting phonemes that are personally relevant to daily communication, such as /eth/ and /z/
Answer and Rationale. Enter to expand or collapse. Answer expanded
Correct Response: A.
When implementing the complexity approach, a speech language pathologist determines the intervention targets by selecting more complex sound classes or later-developing speech sounds, as well as determining speech sound stimulability. When using the complexity approach, students are more likely to make gains that generalize across sound classes, rather than a single speech sound.

Objective 0013 
Understand effective, evidence-based instructional practices for students with receptive and expressive language disorders.

16. A speech language pathologist (S L P) developed objectives for a preschool student who is nonverbal. Since this student demonstrates adverse behaviors associated with limited communication abilities, the objective "Student will indicate 'I need help' using a single icon in 8/10 trials given direct verbal and visual cues" will be the focus of intervention. Which of the following Illinois Early Learning and Development Standards (I E L D S) does this objective best address?

  1. Provide comments relevant to the context.
  2. Respond appropriately to questions from others.
  3. Use language for a variety of purposes.
  4. Engage in agreed-upon rules for discussion.
Answer and Rationale. Enter to expand or collapse. Answer expanded
Correct Response: C.
The Illinois Early Learning and Development Standards (I E L D S) are age-appropriate early learning and development standards that are intended to guide early childhood educators in developing experiences that support young children's learning. Promoting a student's ability to use language for a variety of purposes is likely to replace adverse behaviors with functional and more appropriate communication. In the example, the student can generate a request or even a demand by communicating, "I need help."

Objective 0013 
Understand effective, evidence-based instructional practices for students with receptive and expressive language disorders.

17. Several students ages 18 to 21 who are enrolled in a Life Skills program are encountering difficulties navigating social language specific to the workplace. After collaborating with the special education teacher, the speech language pathologist would most appropriately take which of the following steps first to address the students' challenges?

  1. determining the communication demands of the vocational settings
  2. role-playing difficult and frequently occurring work-related scenarios
  3. developing language scripts to facilitate employer-employee interactions
  4. creating social stories to model social behavior within a specific situation
Answer and Rationale. Enter to expand or collapse. Answer expanded
Correct Response: A.
Determining the communication demands is a student-centered intervention approach that focuses on developing goals/objectives that are relevant and meaningful to the student. When intervention goals/objectives are meaningful and relevant, students, especially those with social language impairment, have higher rates of initiation and use of targeted language skills that generalize across environments.

Objective 0014 
Understand effective, evidence-based instructional practices for students with hearing impairments.

18. A seventh-grade student with a hearing impairment has the Individualized Education Program (I E P) accommodations of preferential seating, personal hearing assistive technology, and captioning of videos and movies. At the student's annual I E P meeting, which of the following questions is most appropriate for the team to answer when considering additional accommodations?

  1. What accommodations is the district able to provide?
  2. What classroom settings can be easily modified to implement accommodations?
  3. What instructional accommodations can be adapted to address areas of testing?
  4. What accommodations can facilitate the ability to demonstrate knowledge?
Answer and Rationale. Enter to expand or collapse. Answer expanded
Correct Response: D.
Accommodations are an integral part of a student's Individualized Education Program (I E P) since they facilitate equal access to learning, thus improving a student's ability to participate and make progress in the general curriculum. When developing a student's I E P, the educational team needs to consider accommodations that effectively remove barriers to the student's ability to learn and demonstrate knowledge.

Objective 0015 
Understand strategies for working and collaborating with family, school, and relevant local community professionals.

19. Which of the following communication strategies would most likely foster positive home-school relationships?

  1. contacting parents/guardians regarding behavior issues and impact on language progress
  2. hosting an educational series addressing strategies parents should use to encourage language development
  3. creating a monthly newsletter highlighting everyday activities that target and strengthen language skills
  4. contacting parents weekly to monitor use of home carry-over activities and recommendations
Answer and Rationale. Enter to expand or collapse. Answer expanded
Correct Response: C.
Families are integral to the academic achievement of students, and family involvement has been shown to correlate with higher academic performance and school improvement. Involving families with academic learning at home is likely to result in greater student achievement and success. Furthermore, everyday activities can be used as an opportunity to promote language development during daily routines, transitions, and caregiving times since these are often time-consuming responsibilities that are a high priority for most families.

Objective 0016 
Understand the roles and professional and ethical responsibilities of a speech language pathologist.

20. At an Individualized Education Program (I E P) placement meeting for a prospective kindergarten student, which of the following considerations is most relevant according to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (I D E A)?

  1. severity of the student's receptive and expressive language disorder
  2. extent to which the student is able to remain in the general education classroom
  3. disability programs within the district that align with the student's diagnosis
  4. location of qualified staff that can best address the student's needs
Answer and Rationale. Enter to expand or collapse. Answer expanded
Correct Response: B.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (I D E A) requires that students who receive special education services learn in the least restrictive environment. Therefore, when determining a student's placement, the Individualized Education Program (I E P) team should first consider the extent to which a student can remain in the general education classroom.